About Panhwar
Mrs. Farzana
M.H.P. Chair
Sani Panhwar
Rare Books


About Mr. M. H. Panhwar



    Experience with the Government of Sindh and Government of West Pakistan

    Medal from Sindh University, for securing first number in first class in B.E. (Mech. And Elec.), 1949.

    Awarded SITARA– E–IMTIAZ by the PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN, in 1992 for outstanding work in ENGINEERING and AGRICULTURE.

    Nominated in “WHO IS WHO IN THE WORLD” in 1987/88.

    Life Time Achievement Award for serving Motherland in History and Archaeology, 1999 by Tarqi Pasand Party.

    Life time Achievement Award for Service in Science of Engineering and Agriculture, August 2002 by Revivers.

    Life time Achievement Award for Service in Sciences, Agriculture, and Engineering in the ‘In the Name of Allah’, 2003.

    Life time Achievement Award in Science SGA (Sindh Graduates Association) in August 2004.

    Life time Achievement Award in Agriculture Science by Sindh Agriculture University November 2004.

    Award as Best Horticulturist of Pakistan, by Kissan Times, Khabreen & Ghawla Group of Companies, June 2004.

    • Agriculture Engineer in Sindh, 1953–58. 

    • Superintending Engineer, Agricultural Machinery Sindh and Baluchistan Provinces, 1958–69.

    • During Period 1953–69 carried out following job

    1)    Operated a fleet of 600 Bulldozers in Sindh and Baluchistan for Agriculture land leveling.

    2)     Established 12 Repair Workshops for tractors and bulldozers for Agriculture Department, almost one in each district of Sindh and 3 more in Baluchistan.

    3)     Operated Agricultural Machinery of all types.

    4)     Put in 3000 Tube-Wells in Sindh, and 1000 Open Wells with diesel pumping sets in Baluchistan 1958–69.

    5)     Developed Bullock–Drawn IMPLEMENTS, carried out tests on large variety of wheel type tractors, implements, harvesters and threshers etc., 1953–69.

    6)    Carried out ground water survey in the whole Sindh and Baluchistan and wrote 11 books on ground water in Sindh and Baluchistan.

    7)    Mechanized cotton fully except harvest.  Full  mechanization of  all kinds of vegetables, ground nuts on commercial scale.



    Consultancy Experience (1970–2002)

    • Managing Director, Educational Aids 1970–1979, equipped New NED University with      Scientific Equipment of all laboratories.

    • Managing Partner, Planning and development consultants (1973–79). During   the period M.H. Panhwar handled three major projects pertaining to Agriculture and Drainage. These are:

    1)      Project Preparation, Left Bank Outfall Drain Phase–I (Mirpurkhas and Sanghar Districts), (1974–1979).

    2)      Project Planning Right Bank Outfall Drain Phase–I (Kandhkot, Thul, Shahdadkot), Surface Drainage Project, (1975–1979).

    3)      Project Planning for raising sugarcane for DADU SUGAR MILLS, (1975–76).

    • Managing Director Research and Development Engineers 1979-to date and handled following.

    1)      Equipment for National Building Research Institute Karachi, 1980-85.

    2)      Equipment for Appropriate Technology Government of Pakistan Karachi, 1984–87.

    3)      Equipment for Council for works Housing Research, Karachi, 1980–85.

    4)      Equipment for PCSIR Karachi, 1986–88.

    5)      Project planning of Coconut Farm on 1000 acres at Hab Chawki 1985–1987.

    6)      Survey of Bio–Gas Plants Installed by Energy Cell Government of Pakistan in Sindh, 1989–90.

    7)      Project Planning of Solar Power for remote villages in Thar area, for Government of Sindh, 1990–91.

    8)      Left Bank Outfall Drain, on–farm water management component, 1989–1997.

    9)      Studies for introducing NEW CROPS in sindh AND LATEST CULTURAL PRACTICES, 1983–2005.

    10)     Introducing 25 new fruit crops in Sindh 1980–2005.

    11)     Establishment of three demonstration farms at sawan gas field for omv.  2004/5 to continue upto 2009/10.

    12)    Establishment of M.H. Panhwar Trust to work in agriculture, horticulture, irrigation, water, environments, ground water, mechanization of agriculture, training farm managers, and health services Registered in May 2002.

    13)     Establishment of private free Horticulture Extension Service, January 2005.




    Honorary Assignments

    • Professor Agricultural Engineering at King George the VTH Agricultural College Sakrand and Tando Jam 1954–1957 (Three years additional charge).

    • Visiting Professor and Equipment Advisor to the Mehran University of       Engineering    and Technology, 1980–1986.

    • Engineering Advisor to the University of Sindh, 1982–1986.


    Honorary Memberships

    • Chairman Executive Committee, Daud College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, 1990–1993.

    • Member Board of Governors, Daud College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 1990–93.

    • Member Board of Governors, National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research Karachi, 1986–1993.

    • Member Board of Governors National College of Arts, Lahore, 1989–1993.

    • Member Executive Board National College of Arts, Lahore, 1989–1993.

    • Member Board of Governors Khuzdar Engineering College, 1989–1993.

    • Member Selection Board National College of Arts, Lahore, 1989–1993.

    • Member Board of Governors College of Arts Jamshoro, 1989–1993.

    • Member Editorial Board, Journal Sindhological Studies, 1982–1993.

    • Member Board of SSHS Karachi, 1998-2005.

    • President Sindh Society for Horticultural Science - 1994-2005.

    • President Integrated Agriculture Developers - 2001 - 2005.

    • Chairman MHP Trust - 2002-2005.


    Major Achievements

    • Establishment of Agricultural Engineering Set up in Sindh with 12 Workshop for operating 600 bulldozers and installation of 3,000 tube–wells between 1953–1969.

    • Introducing TUBE–WELLs in Sindh for first time in 1956 and installing 3000 tube–wells between 1956–1969.

    • Investigating Ground Water in Sindh and publishing 11 books and large number of articles on the subject between 1962 and 1973 and continuing research upto 2005.

    • Introducing of Temperature Zone Fruits like grapes, almonds, pomegranates, figs, peaches, plums, nectarines, pears, apples and persimmon in warm  sub–tropics of Sindh commercially and developing   new venues for economic development 1989–1996.

    • Introducing at Khesano Mori near Tando Jam,  new Sub–Tropical fruits like Longan, Lychee, Zizyphus Jujuba, Tahiti Lime and Red grape

    • fruits on commercial scale, 1989–2005.

    • Introducing wild plants Jojoba, Jetropha, Bufalo Gourd and other industrial crops in Sindh commercially, (1993-2005).

    • Introducing new Technologies like RENEWABLE ENERGIES, economic use of Agriculture Wastes, rabbit farming and new techniques for saving water, (1992-2005).

    • Introducing 17 new varieties of mango in Sindh, harvest dates 15th April to 1st  October, (1985-2005).

    • Developing of cheap Micronutrient Formulae, for use in horticultural crops, (1988-2005).

    • Using multidisciplinary approach in investigation of many subjects pertaining to Sindh, climate; history anthropology and archaeology, ground water and horticulture and thus producing following classical books and more than 200 articles, (1975-2005).

    • GROUND WATER IN SINDH (11 books, 3000 pages), 1962-1972.

    • Source MATERIAL ON SINDH (650 PAGES), 1977.

    • Chronological Dictionary of Sindh (700  pages), 1983.

    • Water Requirement of Riverain area,  2002.

    • Five thousand years history of irrigation in sindh, 1993. Revised and enlarged edition The Six thousand  Years History of Irrigation in Sindh (400 pages) to come out in 2005.

    • New Fruits, Nuts and Industrial Crops for  Sindh (100 pages), 1988.

    • An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Dynasty of Sindh 1011-1351 AD  (250 pages),  2003.

    • The first in Pakistan to recognize Banana Bunchy Top Virus, disease in banana.

    • Pioneer in Organic Farming on 100 acres farm since 1988 and by 1996 AD all synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were discarded and work is continuing.

    • Developing seven  new varieties of Lychee from seedlings, 1995-2005, and commercializing them (1965-2005).

    • Introducing 30 new mango cultivars.

    • Successfully rejuvenation of 35 years old mango trees  on commercial scale and planning to extend rejuvenation to 1500 acres in Sindh by end june 2006.


    m.h. panhwar’s

    publicaiton On History, Archaeology, Historical Geography, Climates of the Past, anthropology, geology, irrigation, river indus


    As hobby M.H. Panhwar collects various kind of materials connected with Sindh, specially books, ancient and recent maps and photographs, pertaining to ancient monuments and archaeological artifacts etc.  and history of Sindh. His collection has 15,000 books and bulletins on Sindh, 3,000 ancient maps and large number of photographs. Some of they are rare and unknown in Sindh.


    He has published a number of books and articles on Sindh mostly in English, only a few of which have been translated and published in Sindh in Journal ‘Mehran’ a quarterly of Sindhi Adabi Board.


    These are now collected in one volume entitled as ‘Ancient Sindh’.


    Below is the list of his publications which include:



    source material on sindh,  1977, 583 pages.


    Chronological Dictionary of Sindh, 558 pages, 1983.


    Heroic Struggle of Sindh Against Feudalism, 1500-1843 AD. J. Sindhiological Studies, Summer 1979. (Sindhi translation by Ghullam Muhammad Lakho Jour. Mehran). J. Sindh Quarterly 1977,  and J. News and opinions January-March 2004.


    Influence of ancient scineces including those of sindh on Al Razi, S. Sindhological Studies, Summer 1977.


    Sindh-Kutch Relation with 21 historical maps, Sindh Archives, Karachi, 1980. (Sindhi translation, Ghullam Muhammad Lakho, Jour. Mehran).


    Twenty two greek and roman writers (500 BC - 160 AD) who wrote on Sindh  (Sindhi tr. - Jour. Mehran 1981.


    Failure of Gate of Sukkur Barrge and Lesson for Future, Sindhiological Studies, Winter, 1981.


    Saman-ji-Sultanate of sindh  a critical letter  by  M.H. Panhwar, J. Mehran, 1987.


    Inevitability of conquest of Sindh by the British 1843, J. Sindhological Studies Summer 1987 and also J.  News and Opinions April-June, 2004.


    definition of nationality as applied to sindh, letter dated 12.11.1987 to Ghullam Mustafa Shah for J. Sindh Quarterly.


    Methodology for Research into the History of Sindh Part I and II, J. Sindhiological Studies, Summer and Winter, 1988.


    Revolutionary Invention of Jhali or Pankha in late 18th and early 19th centuries, J. Sindh Quarterly, 1989.


    Irrigation in sindh  Under Noor Muhammad Kalhora, J. Sindhiological Studies, Winter, 1989.


    six thousand years History of Irrigation of Sindh - 1993, Second Edition 2005, 400 pages.


    Rare documents on kalohora history, Given to J.  Mehran for publication.


    Sayid Ghullam Mustafa Shah, Some personal glimpses (1981-1999) Sindh Quarterly  Vol. XXVI, 2000.


    Glimpses into 20th century history of Sindh, (Sindhi), Daily Ibrat, January 26, 2001.


    Punjab mistrust has long  history,  Evening Star, Feb. 24, 2001.


    Policing in the Past in Sindh,    A case study of 1714-1850 and 1525-1700 compared to  854-1011 and 1700-1798 AD-Seminar at Karachi, 2002. J. Grass Roots, Vol.25,  2—3-2002.


    Ghulam Shah Kalhora and his Relations with Kutch, Ghullam Shah Kalhora Seminar, 2002.


    Is the present drought just temporary or long lasting disaster - sindh a case study. J. Hayati September 2004. Also Dawn Science Supplement, Oct. 2004.


    Kalhora supporters, local and immigrant tribes of sindh. (Ready for press).


    Archaeology and anthropology.

    Ground water in Sindh (based on  history, geography, geology and changing courses of the Indus), 1964, Enlarged 1969, 356 pages. It was printed as Ground Water in Hyderabad and Khairpur Divisions.


    Man in Sindh – Stone Age to Neolithic, Sindhiological Studies, Summer, 1980.


    Sindh and Its Food Resources, Since Antiquity; Pre-Neolithic socio-anthropological study; animals, birds, fishes and wild horticultural products, Sindh Quarterly, Vol. VII, No. 3, and 4 1979  and Vol. VIII  No.1, 1980.


    Ranikot the largest  Fort of the world in sindh, its odd location and why? In souvenir Ranikot Seminar, 26th March, 1981. Published by Ranikot Seminar Committee. Also in Sindh Quarterly, 1982.


    Changing courses of the indus 3,000 BC to present times, The Star Thursday March 25, 1982 In 50 Years of Sukkur Barrage issue.


    Sindh the archaeological museum of the world; Location of Brahmanka, Patala, Demetrias, Minagara, Brahmano, Brahmanva, Brahmanabad, Dalu Rai and Mansura, Sindh Quarterly Vol. XI, No.1,  2  and 3, 1983. Also in J. Archaeological Quarterly, Vol. VI, No.3, 1994/95.


    7,000 Years of Women’s Slavery, J. Sindhiological Studies, Part I, 1984.


    Four Ancient Rivers of Sindh or One Hundred Thousand Years of History of Sanghar District, J. Sindhiological Studies, Summer, 1985.


    Developments in History and Archaeology of Sindh, Since Independence Part-I and II, J. Sindhiological Studies, Winter, 1985 and Summer 1986. (Also Mehran).


    Hakra Or Sarsuti Controversy. J. Sindhiological Studies, Winter, 1986. J. Ancient Sindh, Archaeology Department SAL University, Khairpur, 2004.


    Languages of Sindh Between Rise of Amri and Fall of Mansura (4,000 BC – 1025 AD), based on archaeological evidence, in Abdul Jabar Junejo (Ed), Cultural Heritage of Sindh, Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro, 1989.


    Oceanographic Archaeology, Its potential in Pakistan, J. The Archaeology  Quarterly, Vol. II, No. 1, 1990.


    On Uniqueness of Dadu District sindh, J. Sindhiological Studies, Winter 1990.


    Pre-Harappan Chronology of Sindh, I and II, J. Sindh Quarterly Vol. XVII, No. 4, 1990 and Vol. XIX No. 1, 1991, J. Sindhological Studies Summer-Winter 1992.


    Save Archaeological Sites in Sindh, Letter to DAWN November 7, 1993.


    Seepage of Water from The River Indus and Occurrence of Fresh Ground Water in Sindh, Article read at conference on Indus, London July 12-16, 1994. (Published in Proceedings of Conference on the Indus at London, based on history and archaeology at Oxford University Press,  Karachi).


    Henry Cousen and Archaeology of Sindh, being information on archaeological exploration and excavations in Sindh from  1895/96 to 1937/38 and their explorers  and published as introduction to Sindhi translation of Henry Cousens’, Archaeology of Sindh, Sindhi Adabi Board, 1995.


    Origin of Castes and Anthropological Study of few Sindhi Tribes.  J. The Archaeology Quarterly 1995.


    Antiquity of Karachi, Paper read at seminar on  History of Karachi, 1999.


    Influence of environment on rise and fall of kalhoras by M.H. Panhwar (Sindhi tr.) Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, J. Mehran No.3-4, 1998.


    Ancient geographical places and tirbes of sindh in vedas, puranas, mahabhartha, ramayana, mahapandas, panini’s grammerGreek writings,  potolemy’s  map and arab geographers.  J. Grass Roots, Vol.24, 2002-2003.


    Is the present drought long lasting elisaster or temporary, DAWN Sci. -Tech. World October 30, 2004.


    Seepage of water from the river indus and occurrence of fresh ground water in sindh,  J. Grass Roots Vol.24, 2002-2003. Also in J. Hayati October 2004.


    Long Drought cause of  fall of Mohenjjo Daro and Indus Civilization,  Khabreen Magazine, Oct 31, 2004.


    IN THE MEMORY OF BOOKS BY THINKERS LIBRAURY SERIES Issued from London in  J. News and Opinions.2004,  Large number of their books are on anthropology.


    History of Khudabad City of sindh.  Read at seminar at Khudaabad, December 2004 to be published in 2005.


    Developments in Archaeology since Mujamdar’s Explorations in Sindh, to be published as introduction reprint.


    Review of ghullam muhammad lakho’s history of kalhoras.


    Opening up of new knwoledge on Sindh’s past, consequent to Mujamdar’s “Exploration in Sindh” (24 pages in press).


    six thousand years History of Irrigation of Sindh - 1993, Second Edition 2005, 400 pages.


    geography and Maps.

    17 maps of ground water in various areas of Sindh in book Ground Water in Sindh, 1964.


    Map of Sindh from 250 aerial photographs on size 4x8 feet, scale 1:250,000 drawn by the author (un-published).  Gives courses of the river Indus during past 5,000 years.


    Maps of Sindh (being description of 500 historical,  economic, hydrological, archaeological, physical, geological, ground water and administrative maps in possession of the author drawn by different authors and listed in book Source Material on Sindh). Sindh Quarterly, Vol. II, No.2, 1976.


    Historical Geography of 17th Century sindh, being an introduction to Mazahar Shah Jehani (Sindhi translation), one map by author  Sindhi Adabi Board, 1977.


    21 Historical Maps in Sindh Kutch Relations by M.H. Panhwar, Sindh Archives, Karachi - 1979.


    Letter to ghullam mustafa shah dated april 18, 1980, from madison (wis) about establishment of geographical society of sindh,  J. Sindh Quarterly, Vol. VIII, 1980, No.2


    The Art of Map Making and Some Rare Maps of Indian Sub-continent (which include Sindh) and Sindh, 140 to 1808 AD. Sindh Quarterly Vol. IX, No. 1, 1980.


    473 Maps of Sindh, in Royal Geographical Society, British Museum, India Office Library and National Achieves of India, J. Grass Roots Spring, 1980.


    Map of Sindh (1855) scale 1 inch = 8 miles published by the Government of Bombay.  Names re-written and modern equivalent mentioned.


    12 Historical  Maps in Souvenir Ranikot Fort, March 26, 1981.


    Changing courses of the Indus near Sukkur 3,000 BC to present times, Evening Star March 25-19  82, one map.


    5 Historical Maps of Sindh in “Greek and Roman writers who wrote on Sindh”  by  M.H. Panhwar, J.  Mehran, 1982.

    45 Historical maps of Sindh in chronological Dictionary of Sindh by M.H. Panhwar.


    Fixing Boundaries of Sindh by the British 1843-1947, 7 maps by M.H. Panhwar   J. Sindhiological Studies, Summer, 1989.


    An Illustrated Historical of Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh, 1011-1351 AD - 250 pages, 71 maps   2003.


    A list of 3,000 maps, which show Sindh from various books, atlases and travellers sketches  (Ready for press).



    Muslim Aurat (Sindhi), 1945.


    Causes of Decline of Persian in Pakistan, Pak-Iranian Cultural Center,  December 1975.


    Evolution of Arabic System of Medicine from Greek, Indian, Mesopotanian, Egyptian and Chinese upto 9th Century AD, J. Institute of Sindhiology, Summer 1977.


    Institute of Sindhiology Jamshoro (sindh) Suggestions for Its Future Programs, J. Sindh Quarterly, Vol. XVI, No. 4, 1988.


    A new revolution on women’s rights in Sindh,  initiated by pir pagaro saheb for his followers,  (In press).



    in search of a summer hill resort in sindh, Star, Thursday October 14, 1982.


    Failure of a gate of sukkur barrage OF SINDH and a lesson for future  Jour. Sindhological Studies 1982.


    Development of Summer Hills Resorts and Tourism Centres in The Western Hills of Sindh, Mining Engineer Pakistan, Vol. 3, No. 10, October 1985, pp. 34-39.


    Climatic Changes in Sindh, 67 Million Years Ago to 1850, J. Sindh Quarterly, Vol. XXII, No. 3, 1993.  Also J. The Archaeology Quarterly, Vol. V, No.3, and 4 1992.


    A New Look At Agro-Climatic Zones in Sindh, Daily DAWN: Economic and Business Review, Agriculture & Technology, May 29 – June 4, 1993.


    Agro-Climate of Coastal Zone of Sindh and Potential for Development, J. Wild Life and Environment, Vol. 4, No.1, April-June, 1995.


    Rain Havoc in Dadu-Larkana Districts of sindh, Daily Barsat. August 14, 1995 and Daily DAWN Economic and Business review August 5-11 1995.


    could Rain Disaster in Dadu and Larkana Districts OF SINDH be Averted, J. Wild Life and Environment, Vol. 4, No. 2, July-September, 1995.


    The Environments that Lead to  the Rise and fall of kalhoras IN SINDH, J. Grass Roots, 2002, Sindhi translation in J. Mehran by Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, No.3-4, 1998.


    Agro-Climate of Sindh, Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1 p.


    Impracticability of melting of glaciers for water for irrigation, DAWN May 29, 2003 (Author states that cost of water per acre will be over Rs.12,000).


    Seeding clouds for rain - uncertain results, DAWN, July 11, 2000.


    Is the present drought just temporary or long lasting disaster - sindh a case study. J. Hayati September 2004. Also Dawn Science Supplement, Oct. 30  2004.


    Fall of mohenjo Daro and Indus Culture caused by drought Khabreen News Paper  (Urdu) 2004.


    Desertification and Drought menaces in past 14,000 years.  Daily  DAWN,  Science and Technology Supplement  September 18, 2004.


    climatic changes in the past twenty thousand years  and their impact on environment and history;-  Sindh a case study  (In press).



    Languages of Sindh, between rise of Amri and fall of Mansura 3000 BC - 1025 AD, Sindhi Adabi Board in Cultural Heritage of Sindh, 1988.



    Abdullah Haroon of sindh and His Times (1911-1942 AD), J. Sindh Quarterly, 1983.


    Pir Hisammuddin Rashdi, a dedicated historian of Sindh, J. Archaeological Quarterly, Vol. IV, No. 1 and 2, 1991.


    M.H. Panhwar, A Great Historian - Saira Ansari , J. The Archaeology, Vol. IV, No.4, 1991.


    Syed Ghullam Mustafa Shah, by M.H. Panhwar.


    My Reminiscences of G.M. Sayed of sindh Part-I (1963-70), J. Sindh Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, No.4, 1996.  Part-II G.M. Syed Academy, 2004.


    First ten years of my life 2005, 200 pages in English and Sindhi  (in press).


    environments that lead shah latif’s poetic excellence in sindh.



    Geology and geography.

    About Palantologie of Sindh, 1870-1884, J. Sindh Quarterly Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1980.


    Ground water  books listed under ground water.



    International Trade of Sindh, Through its Port Barbarican (Banbhore), 200 BC – 200 AD, Sindhiological Studies, Winter, 1980. (Summary Jour. PIMA).


    Willem Floor, The Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Diewel-Sindh, Pakistan (Introduction by M.H. Panhwar, 30 pages) 1993.


    5,000 Years of Trade Through Barbarican and The Indus, J. PIMA, Vol. I, No. 3, 1994.



    Sketches, Drawings, Paintings and Portraits on Sindh, by British officials in the mid nineteenth century,  about 300 drawings listed,  Sindh Quarterly, Vol. V, No. 4, 1978.



    Tragedy of pakistan agriculture - cereal culture versus horticulture, J. Sindh Quarterly Vol.XVI, 1988, No.1.


    Economic Plight of Sindh Under Pakistan, J. Sindh Quarterly, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1990.


    Strangulation of Agriculture, Increasing Rural Poverty in Sindh and the Lower Punjab, J. Sindh Quarterly Vol. XIX, No.3, 1991.


    Low agriculture prices result in low yield, DAWN Economic and Business Review, 1996.


    Alleviation of poverty through Agriculture Development, DAWN Economic and Business Review , February 3-9,  2001


    Causes of rural poverty in sindh, Rural Poverty, Agriculture inputs and Price Policies in Sindh, J. New and Opinions, January-March 2004.


    Some suggestions for ending economic depression in sindh (Sindhi).  Daily Ibrat, September 7, 2004.



    Source Material on Sindh, Institute of Sindhology, 1977.


    bibliography of sources on Mir Ghullam Ali talpur (73 titles excluding new papers). 




    Ground Water.

    Proposal for establishment of a field drainage experimental farm, in Khairpur District (Sindh), J. Young Engineer, 1959-60, pp.65-73.


    Ground Water in Dadu District of sindh, 1962.


    ground water in hyderabad district of sindh, 1962.


    Ground and Surface Water in Arid Zones of Sindh, 1963.


    Ground Water in hyderabad and kahripur division  of sindh 1964.


    Ground Water in Karachi district of sindh, 1965.


    Ground Water in Lasbella District, 1967.


    Ground Water in Quetta Division, 1968.


    ground water in kalat division, 1969.


    Ground Water in Hyderabad and Khairpur Divisions of sindh (Revised),1969.


    Ground Water in Karachi Master Plan Area (4,000 square miles between Karachi to Hyderabad) on behalf M/s. Zaheeruddin, Panhwar and Partners for K.D.A., 1972.


    My Experiences with Ground Water in sindh, Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1984,  pp.  62-67.


    Ground Water in the Thar Desert of Sindh, Mining Engineer Pakistan, January-February, 1986, pp. 25-39.


    Some Important Springs of mahal Kohistan (Sindh), Mining Engineer Pakistan, March-April, 1988, pp. 9-14 also J. Sindh Quarterly.


    Facts about ground water in Sindh,   DAWN August 11, 2000.


    Water Requirement of Riverain area (Ground water)  of Sindh,  2002.


    Neglected Riverine area of Sindh: The present situation and suggestions for its development, in  “Water  Scarcity in Sindh” in University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 2004.




    A New Exportable Variety of Banana – William Hybrid for sindh,  Pakistan Agriculture, June 1984, pp.6-9.


    A new variety of mango evolved, J. Pakistan Agriculture, Vol. VI, No.9, Sep. 1984.


    Use of Algae As Proteinous Feed for Human Beings and Animals, Pakistan Agriculture, August 1985, pp. 57-58.


    Now Jojoba Oil plant for sindh: An attractive crop for cosmetic industry, Pakistan Agriculture,             January 1986, pp.39-42.


    Jojoba Successfully Grown on Six Acres in sindh Pakistan,  J.  Jojoba  Happenings USA, July-August, 1987, 1 p.


    Sindh’s potential for new fruits, nuts and industrial crops, Director General Agriculture Extension Hyderabad (Sindh), 1988.


    Assesment of present mango cultivars of Sindh and proposal for extending mango season and increasing export, Summary in 3rd International Mango Symposium, September 26-October 1, 1989  ISHS, Darwin , Australia.


    Going bananas in sindh, J. News  Line – June 1991, pp.56-58.


    Banana Virus in sindh,  Daily DAWN, 18-06-1991, 1 p.


    To Grow Pineapple and Oil Palm in Thatta District, J. Sindh  Quarterly, Vol. XXII, No. 1, 1994. Business Review, December 7-13, 1991, PIII.

    January 23,  1992,  2 p.


    To Grow Oil Palm in Thatta District (sindh), Sindh Guardian, January 23, 1992, 2 p.


    The Banana Epidemic in Sindh imported disease or deliberate sabotage,  J. Sindh Quarterly, 1991, No.4, April-June, 1991, pp.41-46.


    Is Sindh’s Climate Suitable for Citrus Crops?  DAWN: Economic and Business Review, December 7-13, 1991, PIII.


    Grapes in Sindh: From Minnesota Grape Growers 1992 Annual Report, Sindh  Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1998,  2 p.


    To Grow Pineappel in Thatta District (sindh), Sindh Guardian, January 23, 1992, 2 p.


    Damage to Fruit Trees by 1992 Rains, DAWN: Letters to the Editor,  September 9, 1992, 1 p.


    Growing Cashew nut in Sindh: some prospects, Business Recorder, February  1, 1992, 3 p.


    Is The Climate of Sindh Suitable for Raising Citrus Fruits?  Science Technology and Development, January-March 1992, pp.46-51.


    Grapes in Sindh, Minnesota Grape Growers Association, St. Paul (Mn), 1992,  Annual Report, pp.7-9.


    Temperate Zone Fruits in The Sub-Tropical Area of Sindh  Pakistan, In Fourth International Symposium on Growing Temperate Zone Fruits     in  Tropics and Sub-Tropics, Cairo (Egypt),  May 22-26, 1993 in Acta Horticulture, Vol.      409, pp.155-164.


    An Uphill Future for Mango,  Daily DAWN: Economic & Business Review,  May 7-13, 1994.


    Bunchy Top Virus of Banana, Modern Agriculture, July 1994.

    21, 1992, 2 p.


    Samphire – an edible oil crop for Sindh,  Daily DAWN: Economic &  Business Review, May 27 – June 2, 1995, P.III, Published jointly with Farzana  Panhwar.


    Intellectuals  property right and mango Production, DAWN: Economic & Business Review, December 9-15, 1995, P.III,  Published jointly with Farzana Panhwar.


    Neem – an natural pesticide, DAWN: Economic & Business Review, June 8-14, 1996,  Published jointly with Farzana Panhwar.

    Flying Fox: a highly lethal agricultural pest, Daily  DAWN: Economic and Business Review, June 29 – July 5, 1996. Published jointly with Farzana Panhwar.


    Samphire (Salicornia Ligrlovii): A promising oil crop for  Sindh, Sindh Society for Horticulture Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1998-99 1 p. Published jointly with  Farzana Panhwar.


    Advisory Farmnote on Mango for sindh (Winter 1998/99) Sindh  Society for Horticultural Science Vol. 1, No. 2, 2 p.


    Research Criteria for Introducing New Fruit and Nut Crops,  Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1998-99  1 p.


    Top Horticulturist of Pakistan and our ignorance, Sindh Society  for Horticultural             Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1998-99  2 p.


    New Mango Called Sindhu developed  in Maharashtra  India,  Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 1, 1998, 1 p.


    Mango cultivation practices and belief  Truth of Myth, Sindh  Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1998-99  1 p.


    Simaruba Glauca (Edible oil nut) Fruits in Sindh, Sindh Society for  Horticulture Science, Vol. 1,             No. 2, 1998-99, 1 p.


    Disappearance of the Citrus Industry in Sindh between 1955 to 1960 and its Rehabilitation, Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Vol.  1, 1998-99,  2 p.


    Neem – a natural pesticide, Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 1,  No. 3,  1999,  2 p.


    The Great Banana Tragedy in Sindh, Sindh Society for Horticultural  Science, Vol. 2, No.1, 1999, 2 p.


    To Grow Oil Palm in Thatta District, Sindh Society for Horticultural  Science, Vol. 2, No. 1,   1999,  2 p.


    Agricultural Libraries of Pakistan, Sindh Society for Horticultural  Science, Vol. 2,  No. 1, 1999, 1 p.


    Poverty reduction in Pakistan (Mexico an example for Planning, DAWN, 1999.


    Mango Farm-Note, No.1,  1998/99.

    Mango Farm-Note No. 2, Sindh Society for Horticultural Science, Vol. 2, No. 1,  1999, 1 p.


    Alleviation of Poverty in Pakistan through Horticulture - Some  practical suggestions.  Daily Dawn Business and Economic Review,   2002.


    Mango growers predicament,  DAWN May 18, 2003.


    Concerning survial of mango industry, DAWN Economic and Business Review, June 23-29, 2003.


    Date industry in doldrums in sindh, DAWN Economic and Business Review  Sept. 23-29-2003.


    Mango and citrus for home gardens, Pakistan Horticulture Society  Annual Number,  Karachi   2004.


    Drought strategy in horticulture, DAWN Economic & Business Review Feb. 28 - March 6, 2005.




    Threshers british and american, 1953 and 1958.


    Harvesting and storing of rice in sindh, 1953 and 1958.


    Cotton growing machines (MS Thesis University of Wisconsin), 1953. Revised 1970, Revised 2003.


    Mechanisation of Sugarcane in sindh, 1969.


    Mechanisation of Cotton Crop in sindh, 1969.


    Reports on Development of Sugarcane for Sugar Mill at Piarogoth, (Sindh) 1975-76.


    Wheat Turns Poison, Pakistan Agriculture, November 1984, pp. 34-35.


    Development of Agriculture Engineering in Pakistan - Sindh case study, J. Pakistan Agriculture, March 1985.


    Soil Conservation in the Thar and Kohistan Area of Sindh,  Mining Engineer Pakistan, November 1985, pp. 4-9.


    Soil Conservation of Thar and Kohistan of Sindh - J. Mining Engineer Pakistan No.   September, 1985.


    Wheat in Pakistan: Feeding the towns at the expense of the farmers, Jour. Landmark (U.K), July-August 1995.


    Samphire an Edible Oil Crop for Sindh, PIMA, Vol. 3, No. 1, June, 1996.


    Agriculture guru reveals - priceless tips (Nisar Ahmed Evening Star, December 22, 2004.


    Banana Epidemic in Sindh, Imported disease or deliberate sabotage, J. Sindh Quarterly Vol. XIX, No.4, 1991.


    Farming needs new technology,  Dawn Economic and Business Review,  Jan. 17-23, 2005.




    Reports for Animal Husbandry Farm at Jhimpir sindh, 1975-76, for Government of Sindh.


    Agro-Live Stock Project Jhimpir sindh, Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1983.


    Rabbit Farming in sindh  – Journal Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1983.




    Scope for Prawn Farming in Sindh, Journal Pakistan Agriculture, September, 1983.


    Engineering, Scientific and Economic Considerations for An Aquaculture Enterprise in sindh, Pakistan Agriculture, October, 1984.


    Prawn Farming  Sindh (Two volumes) prepared  1983-1987 unprinted.




    Failure of a Gate of Sukkur Barrage of sindh, A lesson for the future, Sindhilogical Studies, Summer 1983, pp.15-32.


    Irrigation in sindh  Under Noor Muhammad Kalhora, J. Sindhiological Studies, Winter, 1989.


    six thousand years History of Irrigation of Sindh - 1993, Second Edition 2005, 400 pages.


    Influence of environment on rise and fall of kalhoras by M.H. Panhwar (Sindhi tr.) Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, J. Mehran No.3-4, 1998.


    Seepage of water from the river indus and occurrence of fresh ground water in sindh,  J. Grass Roots Vol.24, 2002-2003. Also in J. Hayati October 2004.




    Reports for WAPDA concerning: 1974-81.


    Left Bank Outfall Drain Project of sindh Phase-I, Project Preparation 92 volumes (1974-1979).


    Kandhkot-Thul-Shahdad Kot Surface Drainage Project of sindh, Project Planning 3 volumes (1975-1980).




    Experiments on Twenty One Foot Southern Cross Wind Mill at Tando Jam (Sindh), 1965-69,  published 1970.


    First Biogas Plant of Pakistan at tando jam sindh, (1959), J. Science, Technology and Development Vol. 3, No. 2, 1984.


    Small Tractors and are They Worth While? Pakistan Agriculture,  March, 1984. Pp. 27-29.


    Scope for Use of Wind Power in Sindh, 1984.


    Agro-Industry and Power Orientation, Pakistan Agriculture, August, 1984.


    Proposal for Installation of 250 Wind Mills in Kohistan and Thar Deserts of sindh as Range Management Program, Mining Engineer Pakistan, November 1985, pp. 15-27.


    An Scope for Better Utilisation of Poultry Droppings, by converting it into Cattle Feed and Methane, Science Technology and Development, January-February, 1986, pp. 25-28.  J. Pakistan Agriculture, Vol. VII, No.2, February 1985.


    Electromagnetic Or Electronic Treatment of Kohistan Water for use in the boilers, Mining Engineer Pakistan, March, 1986, pp. 30-40.


    Wind power Development for Sindh Pakistan.  Wind velocities too low for economic power development, DAWN Economic and Business Review December 2-8, 2002.


    Bio-Gas Plants for Developing Countries (Ready for press).




    Plan For Development of Thar and Kohistan of sindh, Mining Engineer          Pakistan, March 1986, pp. 36-40.


    Is the present drought just temporary or long lasting disaster - sindh a case study. J. Hayati September 2004. Also Dawn Science Supplement, Oct. 30  2004.


    Influence of environment on rise and fall of kalhoras by M.H. Panhwar (Sindhi tr.) Dr. Allah Rakhio Butt, J. Mehran No.3-4, 1998.






    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, Samphire – an edible oil crop for Sindh Agriculture and Technology DAWN Economic and Business Review, May 27 to June 2, 1995, P-III.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, intellectual property rights and pakistan’s mango production, DAWN Agriculture and Technology, Economic & Business Review, December 9-15, 1995, P-III.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, flying fox a highly lethal agricultural pest, DAWN June 9 – July 5, 1996.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, neem – a natural pesticide, DAWN Agriculture and Technology, Economic and Business Review, June 8 – 14, 1996.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, Handbook of dehydration of fruits and vegetables.


    New research may stretch mango season to five months, Daily Times, June 12, 2003.



    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, Trace elements in agriculture.



    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, Manual of rabbit farming for sindh.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, complete diet for cattle and sheep in sindh.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, balanced poultry feed in sindh  and the Economic Applications to Pakistan Conditions.



    M.H. Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar, Design of An Acquaculture Enterprise, J. Pakistan Agriculture Vol.V II, No. 10, October, 1985.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, Handbook of sea water shrimp farming for sindh including Hatchery, Feed Requirement and Manufacture, Processing and Packing.


    Energy .

    M.H. Panhwar and Mrs. Farzana Panhwar, Sustainable Methods As Applied To Raising Fruit Crops at khesano mori (sindh), Institute of Organic and Sustainable Hort. And Agri. Res. Hyderabad and Sindh Society for Hort. Sci. Karachi, 1995, 49 p.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar, bio-gas plants for Developing Countries.


    Farzana Panhwar and M.H. Panhwar Research on BIO-GAS FARMYARD MANURE Agriculture wastes like banana trunks, bagasse, barley, maize, saw-dust and etc.


    Farzana Panhwar, bio-gas Technology (8 articles jointly with M.H. Panhwar and Sikandar Arbani) 4 published and 4 in press.


    Organic agriculture.

    Sustainable methods as applied in raising fruit crops.  48 page book, 1995. Reviewed in 3 Journals in USA and one in Australia, namely Rare Fruit Gardener, California, Rare Fruit Council International Florida, Rare Fruit Australia.


    M.H. Panhwar and Farzana Panhwar, earthworms, vermicasts and vermiculture, DAWN Economic and Business Review, January 5-11, 1998.




    M.H. Panhwar besides his constancy work in agriculture and engineering had been carrying out research into agriculture; fisheries; ground water; agricultural wastes like; farmyard manure, weeds, banana plant wastes, bagasse, and saw-dust; diet for domestic animals, rabbits and poultry, wind mills, renewable resources of energy, use of audio-visual materials in education, dehydration of fruits and vegetables and etc., and he has produced a number of reports listed below:


    Ground water.

    Development of ground water in thar desert of sindh.



    Successful evolution of a new variety of mango produced in sindh for harvesting in the first  week of May.


    Packing house for export of mangoesbananas and other fruits.


    Hydroponics and use of bio-gas slurries as soil free plant growth medium.



    Trace elements in agriculture jointly with Farzana Panhwar.


    Most suitable agricultural sprays for Pakistan conditions.


    Livestock jointly with farzana panhwar.

    Manual of rabbit farming for rural sindh.


    Complete diet for cattle and sheep.


    Conversion of lignin a non-digestible ingredient, into digestible one.


    Balanced poultry feed and the economic applications to Pakistan conditions.


    Feed from biogas plant slurries.


    Processing of agricultural wastes as animal feed.



    Hand book of acquaculture for Pakistan.


    Hand book of sea water shrimp farming including hatchery,

    feed requirement and manufacture, processing and packing

    for sindh  (Two volumes).


    Hand book of sweet water giant prawn farming.



    Research on bio-gas from farmyard manure, agricultural wastes like banana trunks, 

    bagasse, barley, maize, saw-dust and etc.


    A project for 250 wind mills for thar and kohistan of Sindh.


    Improved types of bio-gas plants, modification of Indian designs.


    Proposal for experimental digester for production of methane by use of agricultural, animal and other organic wastes in addition to animal excrete.


    hand book of improved bio-gas designs suitable for Pakistan and the

    Third World.


    Hand book for monitoring bio-gas digesters.


    Gasification of wood and agricultural wastes as fuel for gas engines, diesel

    engines, tractors, vehicles and boilers.


    A survey of wind mills manufactured in the world and

    those and those economically suitable to conditions in

    Southern Thar and Kohistan.


    A proposal for wind mill farm in sindh.



    Experiments on electro magnetic devices and their application for softening  of  hard water in the boiler.

    Plan for development of thar and kohistan of sindh 1975, Revised 1982,  Revised 1984.

    Farzana Panhwar, flora of thar and kohistan.














    Fruit Crops

    No. of Varieties


    Source of Plants





    18 from USA, Brazil and Australia and 20 produced from seedlings 10 more under trials.





    6 local selections and one from Hawaii (USA).





    Florida and Hawaii (USA), already fruiting.



    Grape Fruit “Ruby” and “Shamber”.


    Florida, California and Texas (USA), in fruit now.



    Apple: anna, dorset golden, einshmber and crab apple.


    Florida (USA), now fruiting.





    Florida (USA), now fruiting.





    Florida (USA), now fruiting.





    Australia (suitable for coasts near Ghorabari).



    Tahiti Lime.


    Florida (USA), now fruits all year around.





    Florida (USA), now fruiting.



    Grapes: Thompson seedless and others.


    California (USA) and Spain, now fruiting.










    California, already; fruiting.



    Z. jujube.


    California, already fruiting.





    Spain, USA, already fruiting.





    Taiwan, Indonesia, Hawaii (USA), South Africa and Brazil and local selections.



    Date (at Clifton Karachi)


    Grows on 50% sea water  + 50% fresh water fruiting for the past 10 years.





    The Sunrise Solo from Hawaii (USA) and two varieties from Taiwan.





    West Indies (suitable only for coasts near Ghorabari).



    Jojoba oil nut.


    Mexico, fruiting since 1986, wax nut, substitute for whale oil.



    Pear (Oriental).





    Persimmon (Japanese).





    Jatropha nut.


    Mexico, yielding diesel oil.





    Texas (USA), yielding half ton edible oil per acre per year and 4 tons of starch every 3rd years.






    • California Rare Fruit Growers Association, 1986 to 1993.

    • Australian Macadamia Growers Association, 1986 to1989.

    • California Avocado Society, 1987-1992.

    • Jojoba Growers Association, 1985 to 1988.

    • International Society for Horticultural Science, 1990-todate.

    • American Society for Horticultural Science, 1990 – 1998.

    • Florida State Horticultural Society, 1987 to 1997.

    • Rare Fruit Council of Australia 1981-2000.

    • Australian Society for Horticultural Science, 1990 to 1997.

    • American Pomological Society, 1989 to 1993.

    • International Banana Association, 1980-1990.

    • Professional Member American Society for Enology and Viticulture, 1992-todate.

    • South African Society for Horticulture Science, 1993 to 1994.

    • International Rare Fruit Council Inc. (Florida USA), 1990 to 1990.

    • Pakistan Association of Scientists and Scientific Professions 1982 to 1999.



    • Associate Member American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1953 to 1967.

    • Member Institute of Agricultural Engineers (U.K), 1964 to 1970.

    • Fellow Royal Geographical Society London, 1979-todate.

    • Member Pakistan Engineering Council, Islamabad, 1977-todate.

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